Global Positioning Systems
- global navigation satellite system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis
Geographical Information Systems
- captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that is linked to location
- technically, GIS is a system which includes mapping software and its application to remote sensing, land surveying, aerial photography, mathematics, photogrammetry, geography, and tools that can be implemented with GIS software
Public Participation Geographic Information Systems
- merges the academic practices of GIS and mapping to the local level in order to promote knowledge production
- promotes empowerment and inclusion of marginalized populations, uses and produces digital maps, satellite imagery, sketch maps, and many other spatial and visual tools, to change geographic involvement and awareness on a local level
Participatory Geographic Information Systems
- merges Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) methods with Geographic Information Technologies and Systems (GIT&S)
- usually geared towards community empowerment through measured, demand-driven, user-friendly and integrated applications of GIT&S, where maps become a major conduit in the process
Participatory 3-Dimensional Modeling
- merges traditional spatial information with people's knowledge to generate scaled 3-D models and as an option accurate geo-coded maps
Community Integrated GIS
- “guided by three broad conceptual principles: popular community participation; local, social and spatial differentiation; and regional political ecology” (Craig, W., Harris, T., Weiner, D. (2002) Community participation and geographic information systems)
Mobile Interactive GIS
-an approach to community based planning that uses a Mobile Interactive Geographical Information
System (GIS) together with Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)
- mapping against dominant power structures, to further seemingly progressive goals
Social mapping
- simple tool that spatially references information on demography, health, economic activities, religion, ethno-linguistic characteristics, infrastructure, etc

- purpose is not to build exact replicas of one’s environment at a smaller scale, the goal is to capture local knowledge and social perceptions on a map
Transect mapping
- a tool used to describe the location and distribution of resources, the landscape and main land uses
- allows participants to identify constraints and opportunities with specific reference to locations or particular ecosystems situated along the transect
- involves outdoor activities, on-field observation, discussions and diagramming. One output is a transect map
Resource Mapping or sketch mapping
- method for collating and plotting information on the occurrence, distribution, access and use of resources within the economic and cultural domain of a specific community

- a further stage can generate geo-referenced information
Community Information Systems CIS
- a map-based multimedia information system in which the traditional knowledge is documented by community members using digital video, digital photos and written text, stored on computers and managed and communicated through the interface of an interactive map
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